Here are a few little tips to help Yoga teachers feel easier with Sanskrit –
Should it be Shavasana or Shavasan for the Corpse Pose, Bhujangasana or Bhujangasan for Cobra?
Why is there an s between yoga and citta in the phrase “yogascittavrttinirodhah”?
How can I figure out how to say any Sanskrit yoga word? I’ve heard that the Sanskrit alphabet is weird… would I ever be able to figure out what any word in yoga means, or how to say it, if I come across a new pose that only gives the Sanskrit?
Let’s start with asana
It is already a Sanskrit word! Only it is written in a way that suits English speakers. We have to go back to the beginning. Here it is in Devanāgari, which is the word that describes the Sanskrit script – the characters that look so strange to us.
This literally spells out a-a-s-n, aasn.
The first two letters are both “a” The first a looks like this : अ.The second is just another stroke beside it आ. That is like the difference between capital letter at the beginning and a small letter in the body of the word. The third letter, स, is “s” and the fourth one, न, is “n”. There is a trick here, but it’s an easy trick… Every consonant in Sanskrit is followed by a short a,(like ba, da, na, ta) unless there is another vowel in its place (like be or do). So if we spell it in English, in a way that accounts for all of the Sanskrit sounds, we would write it this way: āsana – a long “a” to start with and then two short “a”s. What all that means that is that you pronounce it “arsana”, and stop calling it “asarna”!!
For this to become easy, you have to know one of two things, or even better to know both of them. The first is to know what the Sanskrit alphabet letters are and how to pronounce them. That means understanding how marks on the ordinary English alphabet of 26 letters can show you how to pronounce the 54 letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. To do that, we have to be able to convert the Devanāgari script that Sanskrit uses into the Roman script that English uses. So “āsana” truly is a Sanskrit word, but it is written now in the Roman style of lettering rather than the Devanāgari style and we can read it easily.
Those marks that show us how to pronounce it are called diacritical marks. That’s why āsana has a diacritical mark over the first a (it’s long) and so has the first a in Devanāgari – the diacritical mark shows you that it is the only long a in the word and so the stress will be on that syllable, not on the “gari”
And it is fun and helpful if a program will convert English (Roman) script into Devanāgari and Devanāgari into Roman script.
Here are two very helpful programs that do that.
Itranslator: Omkara Ashram Himalayas provides a free program to download, which converts English (ie, the Roman alphabet) into Devanāgari. https://www.oah.in/Sanskrit/itranslator2003.htm
The trick that here is that you have to understand how to write the English version in a transliteration method that the program will understand. (It uses IAST).
The second is a program that converts both ways – it is provided by Ashtanga Yoga https://www.ashtangayoga.info/sanskrit/transliteration/transliteration-tool/
It gives you a choice of transliteration systems. So again, the trick is to understand those systems first.
That means checking out the Devanāgari alphabet and the transliteration systems. You will find a PDF which gives you all the systems in one table here: Sanskrit Alphabet Transliteration. Don’t forget that the Sanskrit alphabet is written in the Devanāgari script while English is written in Roman script.
Once you have got your head around that, simply transliterating is easy. Caution though…. RUBBISH IN MEANS RUBBISH OUT!
Now, what about those words that are sometimes pronounced with an a on the end, and sometimes it is dropped?
Shavasana and Bhujangasana are prime contenders. As you know now (yay!), all Sanskrit consonants come with their own “a”. So the final “n” on both those words would properly be pronounced “na”, in Classical Sanskrit.
However, as languages evolve, people begin to take shortcuts. As Sanskrit evolved into Hindi, people began dropping the final “a”. Not only the “na” endings, either. You may hear Shiva pronunced Shiv. Not Krishna, though (which really ought to be spelt Krshn, there is no “i” in it) – but just try saying Krishn without the final vowel. You would say it anyway, when your mouth lets go of the word and moves on. It becomes prounounced “krishna” no matter how you spell it, because of how the mouth has to move to say it.
So the a on the end of every pose really ought to be pronounced. The a is a transliteration device that shows how it was pronounced in Sanskrit. But if your teacher has learnt in a tradition that goes back to a Hindi speaker, everyone will probably be dropping off final a, though not very systematically.
What about the “s” between yoga and citta in the second sutra?
Hmm… well, that one is uber tricky unless you want to go much deeper into things. Let me give you a sense of it by showing something we do in English. If you are speaking very formally, you might say, “I am going to go home, now”. What you are much more likely to say is, “I’m goin ‘ome now”.
It’s a bit like that. Really, Sanskrit is written the way it would sound as people said the words.
But I can say yoga and citta easily an not make any “s” sound – what’s the problem?
So now you would be going even deeper, right into the grammar and case endings of an inflectional language… and I know you don’t want to go there, so let’s leave it here for now, except to say that originally it would have been yogah citta. English speakers would not pronounce the h, but supposing you did? You might find that it slid into an schi rather than an h-space-c.
Just remember it is a lot of fun to learn how to pronounce the Devanāgari alphabet, and to know how to manage transliteration. Then you can teach the asanas without sounding like a git, and without teaching your own students to be ignorant gits. And if you learn just a little more, you can work out what each of the asana names really means, rather than just passing on what everyone else says. Here are two examples
Bhujangasana, again (भुजन्गासन, bhujangāsana): That’s Cobra, isn’t it?
Yet the translation is
Bhuj – bend, twist, plus
Anga – limb, plus
Asana – posture
Alternatively, it can be bhujanga+asana : snake posture
So it is not necessarily a cobra at all, rather any snake. And we could assume from the root meanings of the word for “snake” that the yogi aspires to emulate the flexible spine of any snake.
Sarvangasana (सर्वन्गासन, sarvangāsana) : Shoulderstand
The translation is
Sarva – all, plus
Anga – limbs, plus
Asana – posture
So! More than just shoulderstand, then! The ancient yogis apparently thought of this as a movement and hold that uses all the limbs of your body.
This is all actually a lot easier than it might seem. I hope you find a way to enjoy it.